With dry climate, Middle East is dominated by desert. It is the region that lacks water the most in the world. The huge incomes by petroleum in the recent years promote the population growth and economic development of Middle East region very quickly. The population growth, urbanization and agricultural development all bring great pressure of rare underground water to Middle East region. In order to resolve the problem of serious water shortage, Middle East countries develop the sea water desalination with the greatest efforts. It has become the region with the highest output of sea water desalination in the world. There are 23 sea water desalination plants in Saudi Arabia with the annual output of several billion sea desalted water produced.
Daily Output of Sea Water Desalination Plant in Middle East Region
As Middle East region is located in the scorching desert region, it is easy to acquire vapor. The sea water desalination plants in the early stage made development mainly in virtue of the multistage flash distillation process (MSF). However, on the basis of the technical improvement of reverse osmosis (RO) and the sufficient sunshine duration of Middle East region, Middle East region makes development by RO matching with solar power generation in the recent years instead of MSF.
Israel stands out among all the Middle East regions in terms of the sea water desalination technique. With the annual water consumption of nearly 2billion t, Israel develops the sea water desalination technique and establishes workshop in order to resolve the water shortage problem. Ashkelon Sea Water Desalination Plant was quite well-known in early stage. Ashkelon Sea Water Desalination PlantNote1 that costs USD 250million can produce 100million t water annually by pumping sea water two main identical and adjacent workshops. It can provide 5% water of the whole Israel per day, resolving the water shortage very effectively.
Ashkelon Sea Water Desalination Plant
Note 1: Ashkelon Sea Water Desalination Plant is contracted by VID which was jointly established by IDE, Veolia Water Company and Elran Infrastructure Company. With the operation mode of BOT, this plan will be returned to the government in 25years